Language and Culture Archive of Ashkenazic Jewry Digital Archive User Guide: Notation Key

This is a guide to using the Digital Archive to the Language and Culture Atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry (

Notation Key

Notation provides information about the context or special circumstances in which a response was made.  PQ numbers sometimes appear with a separator between page and question number, replicating the usage found in the LCAAJ archive’s computer printouts (elsewhere they are usually cited in the form of unbroken six-digit strings). In some instances, the separator is a decimal point or period, in others the digit 0. Thus, a number cited below as 097.020 is the same as PQ 097020; and, a number cited as 1170201 is the same as PQ number 117201.


Y9*                 Special symbols for the interview explained in the introduction


0                      question not asked


+                      yes, known     

-                       no, unknown

+ BUT …        yes, but …

-  BUT …        no, but

$                      query

+$                    yes, but doubtful

-$                     no, but doubtful


=                      self corrected (replaces earlier #)


*                      QFQM


||                       is different from (as above)


/                       separates multiple answers, e.g., KARTOFL


/ /                     parenthesis: indicates optional element whose
                        inclusion gives alternate form, e.g.,  ICT/3R/

                        for ICT, ICT3R


)                       prompted (replaces pre-computer , Q)


)+                     prompted and accepted


)־                      prompted and rejected


)=                     prompted and replaces preceding response


(/                      relevant to another question number


(                       relevant to problem number in dialectology

($                     relevant to another geographic location

((                      reference to dictionary

CLN                 colon

CM                  comma

DRWG             drawing in protocol book

EQ                   is identical with (in respect to some significant point, e.g., quality of stressed vowel)

MISPMP          misprompted (editor's comment)

MISTD             misunderstanding, informant’s response does not apply to question (editor's comment)

OVRPMP        overprompted (editor's comment)

Q a Q             separated from the direct answer to a question from any other comments that follow.  Unless                      
                      otherwise indicated (e.g., QGLE, QENG, QGLY, QYID), the text that follows a Q is both verbatim
                      and phonetically accurate

QADJ              adjective


QAMER          American Yiddish development; cf. QANG


QANG            anglicism  097.020 T3ME, JT3S


QAP                applies to ...


Q-AP               does not apply to ...


QB                   yes, text in protocol book1


QBF                yes, fragment in book


QCF                interviewer’s comment: compare

QDG               disgust


QED                editor's comments follow


QEDN             editor disagrees


QEDS              editor's query


QELSW          elsewhere

QEM               emphatic

QENG             informant’s explanation in English; e.g.,  BOB3 QENG midwife

QET                etymology supplied by informant (includes folk-etymological information)

QETC             etc.

QFR                yes, fragment on tape

QF/Y               response of wife or other female bystander

QGERM           Informant’s statement that word is not Yiddish but German

QGL                1) (plus Yiddish) gloss, means . . . in Yiddish verbatim and phonetically accurate;
                       2) (plus English comment) in older interviews is equivalent to newer QI GL


QGLE              informant’s explanation in English; e.g., BOB3 QGLE midwife            

QGLY              informant’s explanation in Yiddish, but not necessarily verbatim or phonetically accurate.

QH                  heard in same locality, but not used

QHUM             amusing [Editor: please note that QAM in older transcripts sometimes used for ”amusing,”
                       sometimes also for newer QAMER]



QHUNG          Informant’s statement that word is not
Yiddish but Hungarian


QI                    1) Interviewer’s comments follow (e.g., QI$
Interviewer’s query)
2) Interviewer’s prompt, to which informant
gives+/- answer


QI GL             interviewer’s summary (in English or Yiddish)
                        of informant’s lengthy comments


QINF               infinitive


QK                  known


Q-K                 unknown


QLAT             not on tape


QLIT               literary


QMEMX         informant’s surprise at own recollection


QM/Y              response of husband or other male bystander


QN                  new, modern LEXT/LIXT QN


QNEX             object did not exist (was not used)


QNN                very new


QNOUN          noun


QNP                unprompted answer to prompted question


QNT                not on tape


QOF                old-fashioned BOB3/HEJVM7 QOF


QOOF             very old-fashioned


QOTW            otherwise


QP                   return to verbatim phonetic tran-
scription. Example: XREMZL3X QGLE


QPOL             Informant’s statement that word is not
Yiddish but Polish


QQ                  check answer on tape


QR                  rare


QRR                very rare


QRTR             rather


QRUM            Informant’s statement that word is not
Yiddish but Rumanian


QRUS              Informant’s statement that word is not
Yiddish but Russian


QS                   said by... NOGL/QS CHILDREN


QSMT             sometimes


QSYN              synonym


QT                   yes, text on tape


Q-T                 not on tape


QTA                tape audited

QTF                yes, fragment on tape

QU                  usual(ly), common


Q-U                 not usual


QUU                very common


QV                  proverb, saying


QVB                verb


QVL                vulgar


QW                 used by... GARTL/QW XSIDIM


Q-W                not used by...

QYID              informant’s explanation in Yiddish, but not
                        necessarily verbatim or phonetically accurate.


QZZ                interviewer’s comment: not elicitable


SC                   semicolon


XX                   sic! (replaces earlier @)