Data Citation: Data Citation

Strategies and resources for citing Data

Data Citation

Data sources require citation just as any other type of publication.  Citation provides due acknowledgement to the original creator, and allows other researchers to find, verify and reuse data. 

There are not universal standards for the citation of data sets, although style guides increasingly provide guidance.  General guidelines for citation strategy should include:

Author – Who created the Data.

Title – What is the name of the data set or study?

Date of publication

Edition or version

Publisher and Place of publication

Distributor – if different from publisher

Format - What type of file or media is it?

Persistent Identifier – is there a web address this is available at? May be Digital Object Identifier or Uniform Resource Locator.

Examples from various style guides

APA (6th edition)

Minimum requirements based on instructions and example for dataset reference:

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

With optional elements:

Milberger, S. (2002). Evaluation of violence against women with physical disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001 (ICPSR version) [data file and codebook]. Detroit: Wayne State University [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

MLA (7th edition)

Minimum requirements based on instructions and examples for books and web publications:

Milberger, Sharon. Evaluation of Violence Against Women With Physical Disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001. ICPSR version. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2002. Web. 19 May 2011.

With optional elements:

Milberger, Sharon. Evaluation of Violence Against Women With Physical Disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001. ICPSR version. Detroit: Wayne State U [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2002. Web. 19 May 2011. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414

Chicago (16th edition)

Bibliography style (based on documentation for books):

Milberger, Sharon. Evaluation of Violence Against Women With Physical Disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001. ICPSR version. Detroit: Wayne State University, 2002. Distributed by Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2002. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414.

Author-Date style:

Milberger, Sharon. 2002. Evaluation of Violence Against Women With Physical Disabilities in Michigan, 2000-2001. ICPSR version. Detroit: Wayne State University. Distributed by Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi:10.3886/ICPSR03414.

American Chemical Society's Style for Printed Data Sets
Rind, D. 1994. General Circulation Model Output Data Set. IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology Data Contribution Series #1994-012. NOAA/NCDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Geoscience Information Society's Style for Data Sets 
Defosse, G.E., and M. Bertiller. 1998. NPP Grassland: Media Luna, Argentina, 1981-1983. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov/] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.

Additional Guidelines from the University of Minnesota Libraries

Tables, charts, graphs, maps, or figures appearing in a publication
United States Bureau of the Census. "Table 151. Retail Prescription Drug Sales: 1995 to 2007." Statistical Abstract of the United States.Year: 2009. http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/tables/09s0151.pdf. Accessed: 11/4/09.

Interactive Database with static URLs
United States Bureau of the Census. "P3. RACE [71] - Universe: Total Population." Dataset: Summary File 1. American FactFinder. Year: 2000. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-_lang=en&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_P003&-format=&-CONTEXT=dt. Accessed: 11/04/09.

Interactive Database without static URLs
Bureau of Economic Analysis. "Per Capita real GDP by state (chained 2000 dollars)." Dataset: Gross Domestic Product by State. Parameters: all industry total, 2008, all states and regions. Regional Economic Accounts.Date Generated: 11/04/09.

 

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