Use Boolean operators to make your search more narrow (AND), more broad (OR), or to exclude a particular word or phrase (NOT).
For a more detailed guide to database searching, see the Columbia University Libraries' Database Searching Guide.
The best way to find scientific or other scholarly articles is to use a database. Databases are organized collections of information that have advanced search algorithms that enable browsing, searching, and sorting of electronic resources. Databases index a variety of resources such as scholarly articles, manuscripts, book chapters, conference papers, dissertations, theses, archives, government documents & statistics, as well as image, sound & video collections. Most databases provide abstracts and full-text links to individual resources.
Access databases, including Google Scholar, through CLIO records for seamless off-campus Columbia University access.
Pro Tip: for more efficient and refined searches, choose a database other than Google Scholar for your search.
You can find additional databases covering research from the sciences and other disciplines via our Research Guides.